Design Science Research Methodology

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A methodology is a set of principles, procedures, and techniques that are used to guide a research project or study. The methodology defines how the research will be conducted and provides a framework for collecting and analyzing data. Different fields of study may have different methodologies and different conventions for conducting research.

Generally, the methodology can be split into two broad categories, quantitative and qualitative methodologies.

  1. Quantitative methodology: It emphasizes the use of numerical data and statistical analysis to understand the relationship between variables. It includes the use of experiments, surveys, and statistical models to test hypotheses and make predictions.
  2. Qualitative methodology: It focuses on understanding people’s experiences, attitudes, and behavior through observation, interviews, and analysis of text and other non-numerical data. The goal is to explore and understand the meaning and context of the phenomenon studied.

Methodologies can also be divided in terms of the approach taken:

  • Deductive: starting from a general theory or model and testing it with specific cases or data.
  • Inductive: observing and collecting data, then developing a theory or model based on the patterns or insights that emerge.

No single methodology is the best for all research projects, the choice of methodology will depend on the research question, the type of data available, and the resources available for the research. In general, a well-designed methodology will provide a clear and transparent plan for conducting the research, which will help to ensure that the results are reliable and valid.

Research methodology refers to the specific methods and procedures that are used to conduct a research study. It includes the overall design of the study, the sampling method, the data collection methods, and the data analysis techniques that will be used.

A research methodology will typically include the following elements:

  1. Research design: The overall plan for the study, including the research question, the study population, and the data collection methods.
  2. Sampling method: The approach used to select a sample from the population being studied. Common sampling methods include random sampling, stratified sampling, and convenience sampling.
  3. Data collection methods: The techniques used to gather data, such as surveys, interviews, experiments, observations, or secondary data analysis.
  4. Data analysis techniques: The methods used to analyze the data, such as statistical analysis, content analysis, or qualitative data analysis.

The choice of research methodology will depend on the research question, the type of data available, and the resources available for the research. It is important that the chosen methodology is appropriate for the research question and that it allows the researcher to answer the question in a reliable and valid way.

Additionally, researchers must also consider ethical considerations in their research design, such as obtaining informed consent and maintaining the confidentiality and privacy of the research participants, among others.

Design Science Research (DSR) is an approach to research that focuses on creating and evaluating new artifacts, such as software systems, business models, or organizational structures, with the goal of solving problems and improving the practice in a specific field. DSR is an interdisciplinary approach, which draws on theories and methods from multiple fields, including computer science, information systems, and management science.

Design Science Research is characterized by the following features:

  1. Creating new artifacts: The main goal of DSR is to create new artifacts that can solve problems or improve practice in a specific field.
  2. Evaluating the artifacts: The new artifacts are evaluated through experiments, case studies, or simulations to assess their performance, effectiveness, and acceptance among the stakeholders.
  3. Iterative design: DSR is an iterative process, which involves designing, testing, and refining the artifact until it meets the requirements and addresses the problem at hand.
  4. Building on existing knowledge: DSR builds on existing knowledge in the field and contributes to the advancement of theory by providing new evidence and insights.
  5. Emphasizing on practical relevance: DSR focuses on solving real-world problems and improving practice.
  6. Integrating theory and practice: DSR combines theory and practice, by using theoretical frameworks to guide the design of the artifact, and the evaluation of the artifact to generate new theoretical insights.

Design Science Research is commonly used in the field of information systems and software engineering to create and evaluate new software systems and business models, but it is also increasingly used in other fields such as healthcare, education, and management. The DSR approach can provide a valuable perspective for addressing complex real-world problems and help practitioners to create innovative solutions that are both practical and theoretically grounded.

In DSR, there are 6 different sequential activities that can be shown in the DSR process model above.

  1. Activity 1 is the problem identification and motivation, which in this research paper is that online learning is having lots of challenges and it is even more than the university students when it is implemented for upper secondary school students. But during this COVID-19 pandemic, there are no other ways to conduct school other than online learning.
  2. Activity 2 is defining the objective for a solution, in this activity, the authors set the objective is how to make online learning as effective as possible for upper secondary school.
  3. Activity 3 is design and development, at this activity, the artifact needs to be designed, which is the solution that needs to be made, whether it is a prototype or a final product.
  4. Activity 4 is a demonstration where it is one of the responsibilities after the artifact has been made, it needs to be demonstrated to get feedback from any involved parties.
  5. Activity 5 is evaluation. While doing the demonstration observation and measurement needs to be taken place to know whether the artifact is indeed solving the problem that is stated in activity 1.
  6. And lastly is activity 6, which is communication. In this activity, the authors need to communicate the problem and the artifact to the relevant audiences for further research.